Foot and Ankle Biomechanics



The most important characteristic feature that distinguish any human body from other living species is the ability to stand on two feet “The Bipedal Stance”. This gives us numerous advantages and wide range of mobility, but at the same time it exposes us to instabilities causing pain and injuries.

Biomechanics studies the effect of external and internal forces on the human body, and how bones, tendons and ligaments work together to produce movement.

Anatomically almost every individual share same number of bones, muscles and ligaments. But as we grow we sometime develop asymmetry, very rarely do we find that our left and right sides are same. This is more evident with our feet and leg. Many of us have mild deformities – perhaps a bowed leg, rotated pelvis, or one leg longer than the other, one feet different in size and shape from the other

Effects of Biomechanical Abnormalities

When we are active or on our feet during standing, walking or running our body has to adapt and compensate for these various biomechanical anomalies. It is these compensations that put structures such as muscles, joints, ligaments and tendons under undue strain as they begin functioning in an abnormal or compromised manner. Over time the structures become inflammed or injured. Some of the problems caused by Bio-mechanical Abnormalities are

– Heel  Pain  – Plantar fasciitis –  Flat Feet – Achilles Tendonitis
– Bunions – Tired Aching Legs – Heel spur – Ball of the foot pain
– Calf Pain – Calluses & Corn  – Knee Pain – Hip & Back Pain
– Arthritis     –  Shin Pain                – Ankle Pain    – Pediatric complaints

Biomechanical Assessment:

Foot Ankle & Lower Limb Biomechanics assessment is designed to look closely into your lower limb function – for abnormalities and compensations, structural or functional. The objective is to identify the underlying causes of heel pain, knee pain and back pain.

Once we have identified the causes of your problems we can design a tailor made treatment plan to improve your symptoms. This may involve one or more of the following:

  • Exercises to stretch or strengthen muscles
  • Orthoses – specially made devices for you to wear inside your shoe to control, realign or cushion the abnormalities.
  • Heel pain exercise treatment
  • Footwear advice
  • Diabetic Shoes and Socks
  • Best insoles for flat feet
  • Insoles for children
  • Referral to other members of the healthcare team if further specialist advice is needed.


What to Expect?

The foot ankle and lower limb biomechanical assessment takes about 1 hour and is undertaken by a qualified Registered Physiotherapist certified by Vasyli Medical. You will need to bring shorts/comfortable loose clothing to change into so that we can see your knees in order to help our examination.

Our Methodology:

We are Mumbai’s Premier Posture and Gait Analysis Centre. We will take various specific measurements with you in lying down position and standing position(static assessment). A video analysis while walking (or running) on a treadmill is done so as to understand gait and postural deviations – this is called ‘video gait analysis’ (dynamic assessment).

Static Assessment:

  • Non-weight bearing anatomical examination,
  • Manual muscle testing,
  • Range of Motion,
  • Weight bearing lower limb posture assessment.


Dynamic Assessment:

  • Visual Gait Analysis
  • Video gait analysis.


Medical Grade Orthotics:


What are orthoses?

An ‘orthosis’ is a medical term which describes a device that supports, realigns or assists in the function of the musculoskeletal system. In podiatry we use foot orthoses.

Therefore “Foot orthoses” are designed to support, align or improve the function of the feet and lower limbs during gait.

Functional orthoses apply forces to the feet enabling to alter certain movements or off-load stress within tissues. The orthotic are prescribed to dispense based on sound biomechanical and anatomical science but may also involve a degree of lateral thinking by the therapist if you have complex problems.

Non-functional orthoses may be designed to improve skin and tissue viability or off-load painful pressure areas.


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The correction has been amazing, it has put me back to my usual life full of activities

Female, 45 Yr, Enterpreneur Heel pain left>right - 1 Month April 7, 2015